Merry Chistology Everyone!!!

It is Christmas morning and what better time to write about this most wonderful time of year where even the greediest of the greedy are forced to place the words "Peace" and "Joy" in their store fronts.  Some call it "Christmas" others "The Holidays" and a few of us, "The Winter's Soltice." Whatever the title, the Christian's believe they own it as they do all the other scared sights of ours they have buried over the years; and so, I feel I must give onto Caesar that which is his:  “Christology.”

First, if you belief Christ is more than a distorted recount of history used to gain power in the world, then you are probably reading the wrong blog.  I for one, however, do believe that this “Christ” thing you speak of is a phase to which is finally coming to an end and once it does, we will return to the ancient wisdom we all know is in us.  I base this reasoning on a few things, but for time sake, I will narrow it to one: it was around 331/332 AD that the world had its last Pagan leader (Emperor Julian of Rome) and how since this time the Christian church slowly stripped us of the knowledge and powers we once had which gave us the world of poverty and illiteracy which we are only now fully understanding.  Hence, I bring you the true meaning of Christmas: Christology. 

The first Christology was developed by Paul, one of Jesus’ twelve apostles.  Paul conceived of Jesus as the Christ, a pre-existent divine being who had descended into man to save humankind from the powers of law, sin, and death.  The resurrected Christ was raised up to sit at the right hand of God, and would return at some point in the future to judge humankind. 

Since the time of Paul, innumerable Christologies have been conceived.  They are complex and their history has been fraught with controversy.  Early Christologies focused on Jesus as the incarnation of Logos (God or the Ultimate Reality) and not as the historical man.  Christological controversies of the Patristic Age (which concerns the lives, writings, and doctrines of the Fathers of Christianity) usually focus on the questioning of the humanity and/or divinity of Jesus.  These included Gnosticism as the major christian deviation in the second century, from which evolved Docetism, which held that Christ only appeared to be human.  Arianism denied that the divinity of Jesus preexisted as the Son of God.  Apollinarianism held that preexisting divinity replaced the human spirit of the human Jesus.  The church denounced such teachings as heresies, usually by statements from formal councils. 

Christologies of the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation placed great emphasis on the meaning of Christ’s passion and crucifixion.  During the Enlightenment in the eighteenth century, Jesus came to be regarded as a moral teacher; and in the nineteenth century interest returned to the historical Jesus.  More modern Christologies examine both the historical Jesus and Jesus as the absolute bringer of salvation and, in his death, the definitive Word of God.  Some modern Christologies start “from below” rather than “from above,” finding Jesus first to be truly human, and then discovering his divinity in and through his humanity. 

Lively debates center on the “dilution” of Christian orthodoxy by liberal theologians in America.  Michael Dummet at Oxford points to an apparent consensus among teachers of Catholic theology in American seminaries that Jesus died without believing that he was Christ of the Son of God; that he knew nothing of the Trinity; that he knew from his mother who his natural father was; that he taught the imminent arrival of a messianic figure called the Son of Man but never claimed that this was himself.  They are teaching, Dummet observes, that when Jesus died, his body remained in the tomb and decomposed there. 

Newer Christologist indicate less emphasis on biblical sources and more importance being given to scientific, psychological, and social considerations.  Modern Christologies undoubtedly will respond to the renewed interest in mythology, such as developed by Joseph Campbell... 

So, as you can see, Christ is a moving target, and in a few years, after it is proven that there are other forms of beings in the universe, I’m sure Christ will be claimed as the driver.  What really sucks, is the only proof we have is he was a very Zen guy. 

Merry Christology everyone!!!

The Pendulum as an Oracle.

A pendulum can provide a quick and portable oracle for the witch.  However, it only answers questions with "yes" or "no," and it only answers for the present, so remember that the answer is subject to change with time, or with a change of perception.

A pendulum should be small and relatively lightweight.  A crystal bead is ideal.  It should be just heavy enough to swing freely from its cord.  The pendulum cord can be made of thin string, embroidery silk, fishing line or even a slender jewelry chain, as long as it is light enough to swing freely, strong enough not to break easily, and flexible enough not to kink or readily form knots.  The cord should be approximately ten inches long.  If you want it longer or shorter, you will know after a few rounds of questions.  Some New Age and occult shops sell ready-made pendulums which are fine if they have not been used before.

Always cleanse and consecrate your pendulum when you get it (or make it) before its first use.  Keep it on your altar, preferably wrapped in some favorite little cloth or pouch.  You may want to carry it around with you in your pocket or purse.  Try to keep it wrapped to keep out distracting vibrations, and do not let anyone else use it.  Others may ask it questions, but you are always the one who holds it.

To use it, hold the pendulum cord lightly between thumb and forefinger.  Ask your question in a form which is suitably answered with a "yes" or "no."  The query may be aloud or silent.  Do not move your hand.  The pendulum will move by itself (that is the whole idea.)  Experiment for a while to determine how it works for you.  A helpful technique is to ask the pendulum "What is your movement for a 'yes'?; next, ask it "What is your movement for a 'no'?.  This should be repeated several times until you are sure of your pendulum's response.  The movements will appear to be combined if the matter is not yet decided, or if the answer is literally "yes and no" or just plain, stupid.

How does it work?  Some say there is a special spirit of the pendulum.  Another theory is that the user plugs into the Collective Unconscious, where all knowledge and answers reside.  Another: we each tap out own inner wisdom when we concentrate on the pendulum's swing.


Chile Government Releases UFO Study of Photos...

The government office investigating UFOs in Chile has released an analysis of two high quality photos showing what appear be genuine unidentified flying objects above a copper mine in that country.  They actually have a committee who studies this shit:  The Committee for the Studies of Anomalous Aerial Phenomena (CEFAA).  It is responsible for the analysis of selected reports of unexplained aerial phenomena in Chilean airspace, most of them from pilots and aviation personnel.

The photos were taken at the Collahuasi copper mine, more than 14,000 feet above sea level in the Andean plateau in the far north of Chile. An extremely remote location with low oxygen levels and unusually clear skies, the area is desolate and inhospitable. The Collahuasi mine produces copper concentrate, copper cathodes and molybdenum concentrate from three open-pit mineral deposits.

Four technicians - professionals specializing in electricity, electronics, and fluid control - were working there in April, 2013. They witnessed a disc-shaped object which approached slowly and was present for more than an hour, moving around in different positions and hovering at about 2000 feet. One technician took pictures with his Kenox Samsung S860 camera. The strange object made no sound, and eventually moved away towards the East.

The witnesses decided not to tell anybody because of the negative associations they had with UFO sightings, and therefore had every intention of always keeping the sighting private. But some months later, the photographer casually showed the pictures to the chief engineer at the mine, who asked for copies. The engineer sent the images to the CEFAA and provided the agency with information reported to him by the witnesses. He too has requested anonymity.

The report states that the witnesses described the phenomenon as "a flattened disc, of brilliant color, with a diameter of 5 to 10 meters [16 to 32 feet].  It performed ascending, descending and horizontal movements in short lengths, about 600 meters above the ground." The witnesses had the impression that the object was under intelligent control.

The first image, enlarged and filtered, shows a solid object reflecting the sunlight, the report states. It adds that the object could be emitting it's own energy as well, due to the high temperature shown in the image (the black area).

The study concludes that "It is an object or phenomenon of great interest, and it can be qualified as a UFO."


UFO photobombs NASA again!

A few weeks ago we reported how a UFO photobombed a NASA video.  Well, it happened again, this time there is no doubt something is out there.  Watch the video below as it slowly fades in and then fades out.  Of course, NASA is saying nothing.


All are called to be saints'

An Angel Frees the Souls of Purgatory (circa 1610), oil on canvas by artist Ludovico Carracci (15551619).

THE soul is all that matters. Every person is created in the image of God. He is body and soulcorporeal and spiritual. In Genesis 2:7 this reality is expressed: "The Lord God formed man out of the clay of the ground, and blew into his nostrils, the breath of life, and so man became a living being." At baptism, the Holy Spirit fills the spiritual vacuum in the soul caused by original sin.

This divine life, called sanctifying grace, is snapped by deliberate rejection and willful disobedience of God through mortal sin, and can be regained through the sacrament of penance. Death is the end of man's life on earth. Man will "not return to other earthly lives." The soul is separated from the body and will receive a particular judgement.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC), 1022, states: "Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his deatheither entrance into the blessedness of heaven immediately or through a purification or immediate and everlasting damnation." The word saint is derived from sanctus, a Latin word for holy. Thus, every Christian, united with Christ in baptism, in the original meaning of the word is considered a saint.

All are called to be saint During the early Christian communities, Saint Paul called all followers of Christ saints. He speaks of "saints at work" in Ephesus 1:1 and saints in Achaia in 2 Corinthians 1:1. In the "Apostles Creed," the phrase "communion of saints" infers a fellowship and interconnectedness among all souls where the Holy Spirit dwells. These include souls in heaven, the triumphant church; souls in purgatory, the suffering church; and the souls of the living on earth, the pilgrim church. The Church honors the holy people in heaven on All Saints' Day. These saints are specifically honored, too, on their feast days. The Church honors as well "the little people: those obscure, uncanonized, unbeatified, uncelebrated and anonymous saints" who will  never be named in the liturgical calendar.

But these residents of heaven, according to Fr. Nil Guillemette in The Cedars of Lebanon "knew how to love, accepted to die day by day to their natural selfishness and who, through the ordinary tasks of an ordinary life, lived with extraordinary beauty The loves of the saints can be the models of Christian. Mother Angelica, the Franciscan nun who founded Eternal Word Television (EWTN), the largest Catholic television network, would often say, "We are all called to be saints. Do not miss this opportunity. Souls in purgatory

Because of the spiritual nature of the soul, it craves with indescribable longing for God, but the desire is unsatisfied, aware that it has to be purified in a place called purgatory.

Mother Church considers the souls in purgatory poor and holy. They are poor because they cannot see God and cannot help themselves. They are holy because they can no longer commit sin and are fully aware heaven awaits them. The living can pray for the souls in purgatory, make the Way of the Cross, give alms and do works of charity. To pray and offer expiatory sufferings for them is the "highest act of supernatural charity." Souls in purgatory cannot pray for themselves but they can pray for the living. The Doctrine of Purgatory was formulated by the Catholic Church in the Councils of Florence and Trent in reference to scriptural texts which "speaks of cleansing fire to attain the beatific vision of God," according to the CCC, 10311032.

Beatific vision in the words of Leo J. Trese in Faith Explained is "God possessing the soul and the soul possessing God in a unity so ravishingly complete as to be infinitely beyond the ecstacy of the most perfect human marriage. . . so shattering as to annihilate the soul, if God Himself did not give the soul the strength it needs to endure the happiness that is God." Saints and spiritual writers stress that the souls themselves decide their "voluntary punitive reparation to restore friendship with God." The fires in purgatory is "equal to the fires of hell," Saint Thomas of Aquinas declares. And contact with the fires is "more dreadful than all sufferings of this earth." Saint Augustine elucidates, the fire is "more penetrating, more dreadful than anything we can see, or feel, or conceive in this life." The Holy church remembers the suffering souls in purgatory: "Welcome into your kingdom our departed brothers and sisters, and all who have left in this world on your friendship," is a prayer said in every Mass.

Prayer for souls in purgatory This prayers, as revealed to Saint Gertrude releases 10,000 souls in purgatory everytime it is recited: "Eternal Father, I offer thee the most Precious Blood of thy Divine Son, Jesus, in union with all the Masses said throughout the world today, for all the souls in purgatory for sinners everywhere, for sinners in the Universal Church, those in my home and within my family. Santiago is a former regional director of the Department of Education National Capital Region. She is currently a faculty member of Mater Redemptoris College, Laguna.


Witchcraft (The Principles).

The only law of witchcraft is The Threefold Law:
Everything you do comes back to you three times.

Earth Magic works Threefold:
The Work is stated and performed in the World of Form,
It goes out into the Invisible World,
And comes back to manifest in the World of Form.

All work is for the good of all only
And according to free will--
Thus harming none. 

One cannot be a witch "part-time."  By definition, witchcraft is a way of life and permeates all of life.  A witch lives by these Principles all through every chosen witchcraft lifetime, away and asleep, in work, in deed, in thought, and in intent.

This means: no cursing, no harming.  This means: no stated negatives, and all negatives taken out of The Law. (The Law of Cause and Effect.)

This does not mean to deny the Dark.  We acknowledge the dark, use the dark positively, strip it of all negative power, transcend it, and Turn it To Good.

Based on the wisdom of Marion Weinstein. 


The Pope's Mistress

Pope Alexander VI (1431 - 1503) divided the Atlantic in half in his famous bull giving most of the western New World to the Spaniards and Africa to the Portuguese.  He also found time for women.

Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (soon to be Pope Alexander VI) was fifty-seven years old when he chose gorgeous fifteen-year-old Giulia Farnese as his mistress in 1489.  She had spectacular long golder hair which in a few years would reach all the way to the marble floors of the Vatican.  Giulia was already married to Orsino Orsini.  "He was a good husband," states papal antihistorian E. R. Chamberlin.  "He was blind in one eye, he knew how to wink with the other."

It became an open secret in Rome that the pope had chosen this giddy, joyous, spectacularly beautiful teenager as his mistress.  Her friends called her "La Bella"; the people dubbed her the "Bride of Christ."  To call it an "open secret" is perhaps too cautious; everyone knew, and very few cared -- except the pope's master-of-ceremonies, a German, Johann Burchard, who kept a diary that has survived.  "From the greatest to the least," wrote Burchard of the top church officials in 1491, "they took on concubines in the fashion of marriage, and indeed they did this publicly."  He added: "Unless God provides, this corruption will spread to monks and those in religious orders, although the convents of Rome have almost become all brothels even now, since no one forbids it."

In these modern days of reputable papacy, whose temporal power controls an area the size of a college campus, it is very difficult to get a handle on these Renaissance popes.

They fought wars, had mistresses, fathered bastards, sold Church offices, and yet at the same time mouthed pieties.  This was accepted behavior.

Giulia Farnese (1474 - 1524) attended the wedding of the pope's thirteen-year-old daughter, Lucrezia
Borgia; Giulia was not skulking in the corners, but dazzling in the front of the wedding party.  Lucrezia, whose long white gown's train was borne by a young black, entered the appointed room in the papal palace, and Giulia Farnese and 150 other women followed her to where the pope sat on the great papal throne with eleven cardinals.  the doors were shut for about an hour to the male wedding guests.  Burchard -- a stickler for protocol -- records of the women that "despite my admonishments, none of them genuflected, except for the pope's daughter and a few others close to her."  He adds, though, that later when the pope's son kissed his father's foot, all the 150 women followed suit, performing the traditional greeting of kissing the cross on the papal slipper.

The men were allowed to enter about halfway through the ceremony, which ended with a huge celebration.  The pope offered up fifty silver urns of sweets, about one hundred pounds of expensive candy.  A miffed Burchard reports that "for a sign of great happiness the candies were throuwn into the bosoms of many women, especially the beautiful ones," adding, testily, "and this was done for the honor and praise of God and the Roman church."

Giulia Farnese bore the pope two sons, which he acknowledged openly, and one of her descendants from their union became Pope Innocent X (in office 1644 - 1655).  More immediately, her brother Alessandro Farnese was made cardinal, and wags called him the "Petticoat Cardinal," that is, until he bacame Pope Paul III (in office 1534 -1549). Giula was portrayed in several religious paintings, including a Transfiguration by Raphael.  Some scholars also contend that she was the model for the Virgin Mary painted by Pinturicchio in the papal apartments.


UFO Photo-Bombs NASA Space Station.

A UFO photo-bombed astronauts making repairs to the International Space Station (ISS) earlier this month - setting off a wild frenzy of speculation online. 

The spooky incident happened on October 7, when Flight Engineers Reid Wiseman of Nasa and Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency conducted a spacewalk outside the International Space Station to fix an electrical problem.

According to the Examiner one possible explanation for the UFO is that it could be one of two resupply craft that visited the ISS.  The Space X Dragon ship arrived at the ISS on September 23 and that space ship was followed up two days later by a Soyuz TMA 14M craft that brought three new crew members.  However, both the craft are currently docked with the ISS and the UFO in the video appears not to be attached to the ISS.

A more likely explanation than a craft piloted by beings from another planet observing human astronauts is that light could have easily bounced off the ISS and refracted onto the camera.  But then, observers have pointed out that there doesn't seem to be a strong source of light near to the astronauts when the UFO is seen.
This may rule out lens-flare and keeps the object confirmed as a genuine UFO.


NASA releases haunting images of the sun

Active regions on the sun combined to look something like a jack-o-lantern’s face on Oct. 8, 2014. The active regions appear brighter because those are areas that emit more light and energy — markers of an intense and complex set of magnetic fields hovering in the sun’s atmosphere, the corona. This image blends together two sets of wavelengths at 171 and 193 Angstroms, typically colorized in gold and yellow, to create a particularly Halloween-like appearance. (NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center)


Sympathetic Magic

I watched an episode of Hercule Poirot last night and in this particular episode, there was a woman who used a voodoo doll to cast a spell on woman she hated.  Well, this is very dangerous for one to do for as we all know, spells come back to us in threes.  And yes, this particular woman is murdered by the killer which really is a useless murder in the plot of the story.  So, as we have stated before, Hercule Poirot is an occult friendly crime solver -- or at least Agatha Christie was.   This, however, is not a post on Poirot, but on the the very simple magic we know as a voodoo doll.

What a voodoo doll represents is a simple form of magic known as “Sympathetic Magic” — be still my beating heart:  I love the sound of those words together.  But I digress.  And, Sympathetic Magic is the form of magic between two objects or operations whereas, by altering or performing one the magician hopes to influence the other.  Hence, if an image of one’s own enemy modeled in wood, wax, or even drawn in sand is injured, a corresponding injury will afflict that enemy.  Similarly, doors are opened in the house of confinement to ease the child’s delivery.  Such practices, which are widespread and varied, are also known as imitative magic.  Sometimes the sympathetic link between objects is one of proximity or possession — contagious magic.  An object closely connected to a person, such as a lock of hair or an article of clothing, can be used in spells against them too, just remember, if the intent is aggressive, it will most certainly not be a good idea for your karma.  And so, my suggestion is to let the natural laws of the universe handle it.  You’ll be much better off.  However, if a person is a real threat in your life, say, an abusive husband, black-mailer, etc., well, stick a fucking pin in them, now!


Dr. TVBoogie


Perplexing symbol appeared on Google's Online Map...

The perplexing symbol appeared on Google's online map of a remote region of Kazakhstan.

While some undeniably strange things have turned up on Google Earth over the years, the discovery of a large five-sided pentagram near the village of Aktau in Kazakhstan is proving to be one of the most perplexing.

The symbol is approximately 200m in diameter and appears to be made up from several criss-crossing tracks etched in to the ground. Some believe that the pentagram's mysterious appearance holds superstitious significance.

It isn't the first pentagram to be discovered in the region either, earlier this year another was discovered 12 miles from the town of Lisakovsk.

At the time, one of the most prominent theories originated from pilot Kurt Yates who claimed that the shape was an abandoned surface to air missile site from the Soviet era. Archeologist Emma Usmanova later contested this idea, instead claiming that it was one of many parks from the 1970s that were designed in the shape of a star.

With no definitive explanation forthcoming however it is likely that Kazakhstan's enigmatic pentagrams will continue to remain a mystery for some time to come.


The Magic Wand - An Intro

Paranormal Website Inspired Stabbings...

That's how a criminal complaint describes Anissa Weier and Morgan Geyser, the two twelve-year old girls accused of carrying out a plot to kill a classmate, stabbing her 19 times, and offering as a motive their desire to please Slender Man — even go live with him in a mansion in a national forest.

"Slender Man" is a modern Folklore if you will.  For those who have kids you know of him.  The creeps who offer you candy from a black car are always slender, or fat and bald, but hey, it's fiction.

The paranormal websites that inspired the girls is "Creepypasta."

An administrator of the website posted a lengthy statement Tuesday, saying they do not condone violence.

"I think that most of you will understand when I say it's hard to justify pinning blame on an entire genre of writing," the admin, who didn't sign the post, wrote.

"Unless you're okay with blaming the world's ills on Stephen King or H.P. Lovecraft, I don't believe that it makes sense to say paranormal writing or an interest in the macabre should be blamed or even used as an indicator of a "sick" person (as a few emails have already felt the need to call both myself and all the authors here). The human race has long held and encouraged a fascination with things that go bump in the night."


According to Gita

"I never was not, nor shall I hereafter cease to be." 

Bhagavad Gita. 

History of Astronomy

History of astronomy

Astronomy is probably the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with astronomy, and not completely separate from it until about 1750-1800 in the Western World. Early astronomy involved observing and predicting the motions of visible celestial objects, especially stars and planets. An example of this early astronomy might involve a study of the relationships between the "apparent height" of the noon Sun, with respect to the changing patterns of nighttime stars. Eventually astrological charts were drawn up by cultures around the world using the raw, astronomical data collected.

Ancient astronomers were able to differentiate between stars and planets; as Stars remain relatively fixed over the centuries, while planets will move an appreciable amount during a comparatively short time.

Ancient history

Early cultures identifed celestial objects with gods and spirits. They related these objects (and their movements) to phenomena such as rain, drought, seasons, and tides. It is generally believed that the first "professional" astronomers were priests (Magi), and that their understanding of the "heavens" was seen as "divine", hence astronomy's ancient connection to what is now called astrology. Ancient constructions with astronomical alineations (such as Stonehenge) probably fulfilled both astronomical and religious functions.

Calendars of the world have usually been set by the Sun and Moon (measuring the day, month and year), and were of importance to agricultural societies, in which the harvest depended on planting at the correct time of year. The most common modern calendar is based on the Roman calendar, which divided the year into twelve months of alternating thirty and thirty-one days apiece. Various Roman emperors altered the calendar subsequently. Julius Caesar instigated calendar reform and created the leap year.


There are astronomical references of chronological significance in the Vedas. Some Vedic notices mark the beginning of the year and that of the vernal equinox in Orion; this was the case around 4500 BC. Fire altars, with astronomical basis, have been found in the third millennium cities of India. The texts that describe their designs are conservatively dated to the first millennium BC, but their contents appear to be much older.

Yajnavalkya (perhaps 1800 BC) advanced a 95-year cycle to synchronize the motions of the sun and the moon.

A text on Vedic astrology that has been dated to 1350 BC, was written by Lagadha.

In 500 AD, Aryabhata presented a mathematical system that took the earth to spin on its axis and considered the motions of the planets with respect to the sun.

Brahmagupta (598-668) was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain and during his tenure there wrote a text on astronomy, the Brahmasphutasiddhanta in 628.

Bhaskara (1114-1185) was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain, continuing the mathematical tradition of Brahmagupta. He wrote the Siddhantasiromani which consists of two parts: Goladhyaya (sphere) and Grahaganita (mathematics of the planets).

Maya civilization

The Maya calculated the solar year to somewhat greater accuracy than the Gregorian calendar. They made detailed tables for calculating phases of the Moon and the movements of Venus for centuries in the past or future. Astronomy and the measurement of time were vitally important components of Mayan religion.

Ancient Greece

Greek philosophers thought of several models to explain the movements of stars, planets, the Sun and the Moon. Eratosthenes, using the angles of shadows created at widely-separated regions, estimated the circumference of the Earth with great accuracy. Hipparchus made a number of important contributions, including the first measurement of precession and the compilation of the first star catalog. Ptolemy later referred to this work in his important Almagest, which had a lasting effect on astronomy up to the Renaissance.

Middle ages

Greeks made some important contributions to astronomy, but the progress was mostly stagnant in medieval Europe, while it flourished in the Arab world and priests in distant parishes needed elementary astronomical knowledge for calculating the exact date of the Easter. The Arabic world under Islam had become highly cultured, and many important works of knowledge from ancient Greece were translated into Arabic, used and stored in libraries throughout the area. The late 9th century Islamic astronomer al-Farghani wrote extensively on the motion of celestial bodies. His work was translated into Latin in the 12th century.

In the late 10th century, a huge observatory was built near Tehran, Iran, by the astronomer al-Khujandi who observed a series of meridian transits of the Sun, which allowed him to calculate the obliquity of the ecliptic, also known as the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the Sun. In Persia, Omar Khayyám compiled many tables and performed a reformation of the calendar that was more accurate than the Julian and came close to the Gregorian. An amazing feat was his calculation of the year to be 365.24219858156 days long, which is accurate to the 6th decimal place.

Meanwhile in Europe, astronomy was one of the seven core subjects of any studium generale (now known as "Universities"). The model from the Greeks most remembered through the Middle Ages was the geocentric model, in which the Earth was in the center of the Universe, with the Sun, Moon and planets each occupying its own concentric sphere. Stars used the outermost one.

The Copernican revolution

Gallileo Gallilei (1564-1642) crafted his own telescope and discovered that our Moon had craters, that Jupiter had moons, that the Sun had spots, and that Venus had phases like our Moon. Galileo claimed these observations were comprehensible only within the Copernican system, in which the planets revolved around the Sun and not the Earth, as was commonly believed then.The renaissance came to astronomy with the work of Copernicus, who proposed a heliocentric system. His work was defended, expanded upon and corrected by the likes of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler.

Kepler, using precise naked-eye observations made by Tycho Brahe, discovered the three laws of planetary movement that carry his name (though he published them mixed with some other not-so-correct ideas, and didn't give them the importance that we do).

Galileo was among the first to use a telescope to observe the sky, and after constructing a 20x refractor telescope he discovered the 4 moons of Jupiter in 1610. This was the first observation of satelites orbiting another planet. This along with Galileo noting that Venus exhibited a full set of phases was seen as incompatible with the church's favoured model of the Earth at the center of the universe and led to much controversy.

Physics marries astronomy

Isaac Newton was the first scientist to marry physics with astronomy, discovering that the same force that causes objects to fall on Earth, causes the motion of planets and the moon. Using his Law of gravity, the laws of Kepler are explained, and the heliocentric system gained a sound physical basis, celestial mechanics was invented. Newton also found out that the white light from the sun can be decomposed into its component colors; this fact is crucial for most of the 20th-century research.

Modern astronomy

At the end of the 19th century it was discovered that, when decomposing the light from the sun, multitude of spectral lines were observed (regions where there was less or no light). Experiments with hot gases showed that the same lines could be observed in the spectra of gases, specific lines corresponding to unique elements. It was proved that the chemical elements found in the sun (chiefly hydrogen and helium) were also found on Earth. During the 20th century spectrometry (the study of these lines) advanced, especially because of the advent of quantum physics, that was necessary to understand the observations.

Although in previous centuries noted astronomers were exclusively male, at the turn of the 20th century women began to play a role in the great discoveries. In this period prior to modern computers, women at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO), Harvard University, and other astronomy research institutions often served as human "computers," whom performed the tedious calculations while scientists performed research requiring more background knowledge.   more women astronomers.) Some of these women received little or no recognition during their lives due to their lower professional standing in the field of astronomy. And although their discoveries are taught in classrooms around the world, few students of astronomy can attribute the works to their authors.

Cosmology and the expansion of the universe

Most of our current knowledge was gained during the 20th century. With the help of the use of photography, fainter objects were observed. Our sun was found to be part of a galaxy made by more than 10 billion stars. The existence of other galaxies, one of the matters of the great debate, was settled by Edwin Hubble, who identified the Andromeda nebula as a different galaxy, and many others at large distances and receding, moving away from our galaxy.

Thanks For Being!

Thanks For Being!